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Depth, severity and daily care of burn wounds

Issuing time:2019-08-01 14:35Author:WUHAN HUAWEI

Depth, severity and daily care of burn wounds

Burns generally refer to tissue damage caused by high temperatures, currents, strong radiation or corrosive substances, mainly referred to skin and/or mucous membranes. Burns not only cause large areas of body fluids to ooze and wound infections, but also skin irritations, difficulty breathing, shock, coma, etc. In severe cases, lung, brain, kidney and other vital organs can be damaged or even life-threatening.

Depth of burn wounds

1. I degree burn: Also known as erythema burns. Only the shallow layer of the epidermis is injured. Appearance burns the skin redness, fever, micro-swollen, dry surface, no blister, the patient has only partial pain and burning sensation. All symptoms of I degree burns generally disappear after 2 to 3 days, and the skin does not leave scars.

2. II degree burn: Also known as vesicular burns, it is divided into two types: 1 shallow second degree burns: wound deep in the epidermis and superficial dermis, large blisters on the wound surface, the patient feels severe pain in the wound. If no infection occurs, the wound can heal after 7 to 10 days without leaving scars. 2 deep second degree burns: Injury to the deep dermis, the blister of the wound is small, the patient only feels mild pain, usually after 20 to 30 days, the skin may leave scars.

3. III degree burn:Also known as an ankle burn. The whole layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue and even muscles and bones are damaged. The affected area is pale, brown or black (carbonized), and the surface is dry or leather-like, without pain. It usually takes several months for the wound to get better after skin grafting, and it will leave scars and even deformities.

Severity of burn wound

According to the 1970 National Burn Conference, according to the depth and area of burns, burns can be divided into four categories: mild, moderate, severe and extra-heavy.

1. Classification of adult burn severity

1 mild burn: a second degree burn with a total area of less than 10%.

2 moderate burns: burns with a total area of 11% to 30% or a third degree burn area of less than 10%.

3 severe burns: the total area is between 31% and 50% or the III degree burn area is between 11% and 20%, or the total area is not more than 31%, but one of the following conditions: the general condition is serious or there is shock There are compound injuries or combined injuries (such as severe trauma, chemical poisoning, etc.), and those with moderate or severe inhalation injury.

4 heavy burns: the total area is above 51% or the III degree burn area is above 21%.

2. The severity of burns in children is different from that of adults. The classification is as follows.

1 mild burns: second degree burns with a total area of less than 5%.

2 moderate burns: burns with a total area of 5% to 15% of II degree burns or III degree burns of less than 5%.

3 severe burns: burns with a total area of 15% to 25% or a III degree burn area between 5% and 10%.

4 severe burns: the total area is more than 25% or the III degree burn area is more than 10%.

3, the current clinical use of "small area", "medium area", "large area" and "extra large area" to indicate the severity of burns.

1 small area burns: 2 degree burn area within 10% or III degree burn area within 1%, equivalent to mild burns.

2 medium area burns: burns with a total area of 11% to 30% of the second degree burn or between 10% and 20% of the burn area of the third degree burn, equivalent to moderate and severe burns.

3 large area burns: the total area of 31% ~ 79% III degree burn area is 21% ~ 49%.

4 Extra large area burns: The total area is above 50% of the country or the burned area of the III degree is more than 50%.  

Nursing care of burn victims

1. Blisters should not be broken by themselves. Small blisters can be absorbed by themselves, and large blisters must be treated by a doctor. Otherwise, it may cause infection in the burned area, affecting the course and healing.

2, for small areas within 2 degrees of burns and burns without bandaging, large wounds, only covered with clean sheets or cloth. For heavily polluted wounds, rinse with clean water (such as tap water, bottled drinking water, etc.).

3, the outer dressing should be kept clean and tidy, dry, banned plastic cloth or blanket cover, so as not to affect the evaporation of water, increase the chance of infection. When there is exudation, the hygienic dressing should be covered with a sterile dressing in time. When the exudation is excessive, the external dressing should be replaced. Silicone gel dressing (foam adhesive) and hydrocolloid dressing have the ability to absorb wound exudate. By maintaining the micro-wet environment of the wound, it accelerates wound healing and improves healing quality.

Hydrocolloid dressing:


Silicone foam wound dressing:

silicone wound dressing (20).jpg





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